Thursday, September 13, 2018

ITALIAN BENGHAZI

BENGASI ITALIANA
Piazza Cagni, now called Maydan al Shajara, in 1938 Bengasi italiana

Italian Benghazi (called Bengasi italiana in Italian) was the name used during the Italian colonization of Libya for the port-city of Benghazi in Italian Cyrenaica.


History


On October 19, 1911 the Ottoman city of Benghazi was occupied by the Italians during the Italo-Turkish War.[1 


Aerial view Italian Benghazi in 1940

Even if Benghazi city accepted the Italians and some members (mainly Jews) of the local community collaborated with the Italian government, in the interior nearly half the local population of Cyrenaica under the leadership of Omar Mukhtar resisted the Italian occupation. Many local arabs -under the Senussi leadership- suffered oppression, particularly from the fascist dictator Mussolini in the late 1920s.
In the early 1930s, the revolt was over and the Italians—under governor Italo Balbo—started attempts to assimilate the local population with pacifying policies: a number of new villages for local Cyrenaicans were created with health services (the first in Cyrenaica history) and schools (https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/14693793.pdf Education for Arabs in fascist Libya).

In the 1930s some industries were created in 'Bengasi italiana', that included salt processing, oil refining, food processing, cement manufacturing, tanning, brewing and sponge and tuna fishing. The Bengasi beer "Cirene" was exported and was famous even in Italy.

Additionally Cyrenaica was populated by more than 20,000 Italian colonists in the late 1930s, mainly around the coast of Benghazi .[2    Benghazi population was made up of more than 35 per cent of Italians in 1939 (https://www.awm.gov.au/collection/C237391).

Many buildings and streets were built in the late 1930s, making "Bengasi" a town  that looked like a typical Italian city in the so called "Italian quarter" (1939 photo of Via Briccola: https://i.pinimg.com/originals/4a/56/23/4a5623b78dd04a7af12d216797b6aa63.jpg  ).

In 1941 Italian Benghazi -according to estimates of the Italian government(3) reached a temporary population of nearly 80,000 inhabitants, due to the arrival of many Italians from Cyrenaica who took refuge from the British army attacks during WWII. As a consequence Benghazi was in that year -for the first time since the Arab conquest in 643 AD- a city mostly Christian.
Population of the main urban centers of Italian Libya, according to the Census of 1939/40:

Town Italians Arabs Jews Total Notes
Benghazi 23,075 40,331 3,395 66,801 Most of the Italians of Cyrenaica took refuge in Benghazi in 1941
Tripoli 47,442 47,123 18,467 113,212 Population of the main urban centers of Italian Libya, according to the Census of 1939/40,(4) showing that Italians were the main community in the city of Tripoli
Misurata 1,735 44,387 977 47,099 Half of the Italians of Misurata moved to Tripoli in 1941 and 1942
Derna 3,562 13,555 391 17,508 Nearly all the Italians of Derna moved to Benghazi in 1941 and later to Tripoli in 1942

"Bengasi italiana" was conquered by the British Army in February 1941, but after only 2 months (when Australian troops harassed the civilian population(5)) the Italians reconquered the city with the help of Rommel's Afrika Korps. The British definitively occupied the city after the Battle of El Alamein.

Benghazi was heavily bombed during World War II (more than one thousand times) and -when the British finally occupied the city in December 1942- nearly 85% of the city was damaged or destroyed.

Benghazi was then governed by the British until independence in 1951.

Under the terms of the 1947 peace treaty with the Allies, Italy relinquished all claims to Libya.[6]
After WWII the era of international decolonization fostered an exodus of Italians from Benghazi,[7] especially after Libya became independent in 1953. After 1970 the Italian population of the city -reduced to a few hundred inhabitants- practically disappeared when Libyan president Muammar Gaddafi ordered the expulsion of all Italians from his Libya.[8 At present, the Libyan Italians (and the few "Bengasini" still living) are organized in the Associazione Italiani Rimpatriati dalla Libia.[9]

Characteristics


Italian Benghazi was located in northern Italian Libya, in Cyrenaica. It was the administrative center of the Italian Benghazi Province, on the Mediterranean coast.
In 1911 Ottoman Benghazi had less than 5,000 inhabitants, and nearly one half of them were Jews,[10 who welcomed the Italians. Indeed the Italians conquered from the Ottomans in 1911 a region in coastal Cyrenaica that was very poor and underdeveloped: it had no asphalted road, no telegraph services, no sewages system and no hospitals (in 1874 Benghazi had been depopulated by the bubonic plague). In the next twenty years they built all these infrastructures and by the early 1930s a new port and a modern railways station were created in Benghazi.
Via Vittoria

In the 1920s in the Benghazi province was created a railway between Benghazi and Barce: a 750 mm (2 ft 5 1⁄2 in) (later 950 mm) gauge railway was built east from Benghazi; the main route was 110 km long to Marj and was opened in stages between 1911 and 1927. Benghazi also had a 56 km branch to Suluq opened in 1926.[11

Furthermore at the beginning of WW2 was started the construction of a 1040 km railway between Bengasi and the capital of Libya. But on December 10, 1942, the official order to suspend the construction of the Tripoli-Benghazi railway arrived, of which 18 km were already ready for use and 7 km in armament. Additionally the basic route was already defined for about 378 km (but the Italian surrender in north Africa, which took place in 1943, put an end to everything).

In the late 1920s and mainly in the 1930s was developed some tourism in Cyrenaica and in Bengasi was built the new Grand Hotel Italia, one of the best in all north Africa (see : http://www.ernandes.net/nicosia/fotosito/BENGASI%20%20ALBERGO%20ITALIA.jpg)


The colonial Italians created the Lungomare (sea-walk) of Benghazi and constructed many other buildings


the Littorio Palace in Benghazi was later the seat of the "Cyrenaican regional assembly"



Modern communications


In the late 1920s was created the Benghazi airport (now called Benina International Airport) and was greatly enlarged the Port of Benghazi. Inside the greater Port in the 1930s was created a modern "Idroscalo" (seaplane station) for the flights between "Bengasi italiana" and Italy.[12]

The Benghazi airport was connected to Italy and other Libyan airports, but the main flight was the worldwide famous "Linea dell'Impero". This line of Ala Littoria was considered the most prestigious line of early Italian civil aviation era:[13] it was opened after the Italian conquest of Ethiopia in 1936 and was followed by the first air links with the Italian colonies in Italian East Africa, which began in a pioneering way since 1934.

The route was enlarged to 6,379 kms and initially joined Rome with Addis Ababa via Syracuse, Benghazi, Cairo, Wadi Halfa, Khartoum, Kassala, Asmara, Dire Dawa.[14] There was a change of aircraft in Benghazi and the passengers could relax and stay in the modern "Albergo Berenice".
In the coast of the province was built in 1937-1938 a section of the Via Balbia, a road that went from Italian Tripoli and Tunisia's frontier to the border of Egypt. The car tag for the Italian province of Benghazi was "BE".[15]
In the late 1930s in the Benghazi province were settled thousands of Italians as farmers in special villages.[16] Most of the Italians were concentrated in the city of Benghazi, where they were in 1939 nearly one third of the population. Those Italians brought to the city the Italian passion for soccer and sports: in the late 1930s was created the "Stadio Municipale", one of the first stadiums in Libya.[17]
Benghazi came under Italian rule in the early part of the 20th century: some examples of Italianate, as well as modernist colonial architecture from this period remain today. Under the governorships of Generals Ernesto Mombelli and Attilio Teruzzi in the 1920s, the buildings commissioned in Benghazi had an eclectic architectural language that embodied a Western conception of Eastern architecture.

An example of this is the Municipal palace built in 1924, which stands in Maydan al-Hurriya (Freedom Square). The building combines Moorish arches with Italianate motifs on the facade. Italians even did the first architectural plan of Benghazi[18] in the 1930s, with a new railway station and large promenade.
Panorama of "Bengasi italiana" in 1935, with new road construction

Urban Plan & infrastructures


The first Italian infrastructures in Benghazi dated at the time of the conquest, in late 1911, when was done the enlargement of the small Ottoman port that was greatly improved and when was created the communication network with the interior through the construction of two railway lines. Between 1922 and the early thirties the Italian government was organizing an Italian-populated center in the area that overlooked the harbour, encircling the Arab city,[19] as it happened in the initial period with the Military barracks "Generale Torelli", the Military "Autogruppo" and other equipments & infrastructures of this type.


"Via Roma" -actual 'Omar Al Mukhtar Street' in the Italian quarter of modern Benghazi- was home to many Italians, before many of them left the old town to resettle outside Libya after WWII


The actual "Italian lighthouse" in Benghazi, built in 1922 during the Italian colonial rule


"Palazzo del Governatore", later called 'Al Manar Palace'

The heart of the Italian city was constituted by the "King's Square", former Ottoman Salt Square that was called in Italian "Piazza del Re", with the central part arranged as a garden park. On it overlooked the Palace Government, a Moorish-style building, later the seat of the "Parliament of Cyrenaica", which housed the Library and the Civil Court, and other remarkable architectural buildings.
In the square there was the "Corso Italia", lined with palm trees, the main artery of the city leading to the new "Benghazi Train Station"; on it stood the main facade of the Governor's Palace (built in 1928-34), designed by the famous architects Alpago Novello, Cabiati and Ferrazza, overlooking "Piazza XXVIII October". Here were lined up various buildings such as the Elementary and Middle School and the Sports Club. King's Square was connected by the axis of "Via Roma" and "Via Generale Briccola", the Town Hall Square, located within the ancient city, in which stood the Town Hall built in the Moorish style.
The Benghazi Municipal Hall was built in 1924 and was considered one of the best colonial buildings in Africa. While the facades were designed by the architect Ivo Lebboroni, the interior frescoes are the work of Guido Cadorin, and the chandeliers are by Umberto Bellotto. The furniture inside the town hall was designed by the company Ducrot.[20] The portico of the facade and the interiors were designed by roman architect Marcello Piacentini: the style of his buildings is characteristic of the Neo-Moorish period of Italian colonial architecture in Libya in the 1920s. This is evident in his "Albergo Italia" as well as the "Berenice Theatre" in central Benghazi. Piacentini was later made project manager of all Italian building works in Cyrenaica.[21]
In 1928 the Milan Studio of architecture owned by Alpago Novello, Cabiati and Ferrazza, got the task of studying a "Plan of Benghazi", where they had already designed the Cathedral (built in 1928-34), located in the Square "Martiri Fascisti" (Fascist Martyrs).


The Catholic Cathedral was connected to the "Via Vittoria", that had 2 columns with the Venice lion and the Roman wolf

Furthermore in the 1930s many architects came from Italy to work and create the new "Bengasi italiana": Limongelli, Alpago Novello, Cabiati, Ferrazza, Di Fausto, Rava, Piccinato, Pellegrini, Gennari and Di Segni were the most famous[22]
The new Benghazi therefore was developed between the old city and the suburb of Berca through the isthmus situated between the "Punta Saline" in the West, where arose the "Industrial basin and Docking area", and the saline Ain es-Selmani eastward. The main axis on which the Plan was based were the "Via Scerif" and the street parallel, obtained by the extension of "Corso Italia". The goal was to merge in an organic unity the distinct areas of the city incorporating the existing structures: although the trend, at least for the old section, was always that of separation from the Italian-populated city, as demonstrated with the enlargement of Aghib street and the expansion planned for the axis of Via Roma and Via Generale Briccola, where in some buildings were built huge arcades (as in northern Italy).
The largest colonial building from this Italian period was the "Benghazi Cathedral" in actual 'Maydan El Catedraeya' (Cathedral Square), which was inaugurated in 1934 and had two large distinct domes.[23]

The Cathedral - an example of neo-classical architecture, as can be seen in the photo to the right - was designed with an entrance that had a portico with six Doric columns, by the Italian famous architects Guido Ottavo and Ottavio Cabiati.  

Original plans show that the cathedral was not completed as planned; the drawings included a three story bell tower which was never built. It was nevertheless one of the largest churches in North Africa and was heavily inspired by Italian religious architecture.
Cabiati also created the "Palazzo del Governatore" (later called "Al Manar Palace" and campus site of the University of Libya) and the large "Lungomare" (promenade).[24]  


Photo of 1938 state-of-the-art Fiat 040 "LITTORINA" (capable to reach nearly 100 km/h, that was a railways worldwide record in that year), when just arrived in the Bengasi port

Institutions


There were many institutions of the Italian government in "Bengasi italiana", all concentrated in the area centered around the Catholic cathedral and the Governor's Palace.

The following were the official Institutions created by the Italians and their government in Benghazi (for further information read Institutions & Educational organizations in Libya):

* Schools for Italians:
**Regina Elena kinder-elementary school
**Elementary school Ameglio

**Elementary school Cantore

**Scuole Medie Carducci

**Istituto Tecnico, ginnasio, Liceo classico (High school)

**Scuola industriale e commerciale Arnaldo Mussolini

**Scuola Cristiana parificata "Istituto De La Salle" -elementare/medie (http://www.exlalialcollelasalle.it/FSC_a_Bengasi.pdf )

**Kinder-elementary school delle Suore Francescane

* Study-research Institutions
** Ufficio agrario - Centro sperimentale agrario
** Stazione ampelografica - Museum 'entomologico'


Schools for Jews

**Scuola per ebrei Regina Margherita

* Schools for Native Arabs:
**Scuola italo-araba Principe di Piemonte

**Scuola italo-araba Torelli

**Scuoila italo-araba femminile (only girls)

**Scuola secondaria avviamento professionale Arnaldo Mussolini

**Scuola per tracomatosi

**Scuola convitto per infermiere (nurse school)



* Associations, Media and Cinema/Theaters:

40
Bengasi
scuole per italiani
• Asilo d’infanzia Regina Elena   • Scuola elementare maschile G. Ame-
glio • Scuola elementare femminile Regina Elena • Scuola elementare
mista G. Cantore
(a Berca)
• Scuole medie Giosuè Carducci. Istituto tec-
nico inferiore, istituto tecnico superiore, ginnasio e liceo classico   • Scuo-
la secondaria di avviamento professionale industriale maschile, industriale
femminile e commerciale mista Arnaldo Mussolini   • Fratelli delle scuo-
le cristiane Istituto De La Salle
(scuola elementare maschile parificata)
• Suore francescane missionarie d’Ivrea
(asilo d’infanzia e scuola ele-
mentare femminile parificata)
scuole statali per ebrei:
Scuola per ebrei Regina Margherita
scuole statali per arabi
• Scuola per tracomatosi   • Scuola italo-araba Principe di Piemonte
• Scuola maschile italo-araba G. Torelli   • Scuola femminile italo-ara-
b
a
Scuola maschile italo-araba
(a Berca
)
Scuola italo-araba
(a
Rahaba
)
Scuola secondaria d’avviamento   • Corso di artigianato an-
nesso alla Scuola secondaria di avviamento professionale A. Mussolini
Scuola convitto per allieve infermiere
istituti di studi superiori e di ricerca
• Ufficio agrario
(con annesso museo entomologico
)
• Centro speri
-
mentale agrari
o
• Giardino di acclimatazion
e
• Stazione ampelografica
altre istituzioni
• Biblioteca   • Museo archeologico   • Casa littoria   • Casa della Gil
Sindacati fascist
i
Società Dante Alighieri   • Ente turistico alber-
ghiero della Libia   • Consociazione turistica italiana   • Compagnia ita-
liana del turismo   • Regio automobile club d’Italia   • Consiglio e uffi-
cio dell’economia corporativa   • Associazione musulmana del littorio
• Gioventù araba del littorio   • Scuola allievi zaptiè
associazioni
Istituto del nastro azzurro   • Associazione nazionale fra mutilati e inva-
lidi guerr
a   • Associazione nazionale combattenti   • Associazione nazio-
nale volontari di guerr
a
Unione nazionale ufficiali in congedo d’Itali
a
Federazione nazionale arditi d’Italia   • Associazione nazionale bersa-
glieri   • Associazione nazionale arma del genio   • Gruppo autieri in con-
gedo   • Reale unione navale aeronautica
(con annessa scuola civile di pi-
lotaggio)
• Circolo delle forze armate   • Circolo dell’industria e del com-
mercio   • Circolo dei cacciatori   • Tennis club del littorio   • Lega nava-
le italiana   • Unione uomini cattolici San Giuseppe   • Associazione fem-
minile Immacolata concezione   • Pio sodalizio delle figlie di Maria   • As-
sociazione maschile Juventus Nov
a
• Terz’ordine francescano   • Asso-
ciazione maschile Sant’Antonio da Padova   • Associazione femminile
Santa Teresa del Bambin Gesù   • Associazione maschile S. Cuore di Ge-
sù   • Associazione giovanile di azione cattolica del SS.mo Crocifisso
40
Bengasi
scuole per italiani
• Asilo d’infanzia Regina Elena   • Scuola elementare maschile G. Ame-
glio • Scuola elementare femminile Regina Elena • Scuola elementare
mista G. Cantore
(a Berca)
• Scuole medie Giosuè Carducci. Istituto tec-
nico inferiore, istituto tecnico superiore, ginnasio e liceo classico   • Scuo-
la secondaria di avviamento professionale industriale maschile, industriale
femminile e commerciale mista Arnaldo Mussolini   • Fratelli delle scuo-
le cristiane Istituto De La Salle
(scuola elementare maschile parificata)
• Suore francescane missionarie d’Ivrea
(asilo d’infanzia e scuola ele-
mentare femminile parificata)
scuole statali per ebrei:
Scuola per ebrei Regina Margherita
scuole statali per arabi
• Scuola per tracomatosi   • Scuola italo-araba Principe di Piemonte
• Scuola maschile italo-araba G. Torelli   • Scuola femminile italo-ara-
b
a
Scuola maschile italo-araba
(a Berca
)
Scuola italo-araba
(a
Rahaba
)
Scuola secondaria d’avviamento   • Corso di artigianato an-
nesso alla Scuola secondaria di avviamento professionale A. Mussolini
Scuola convitto per allieve infermiere
istituti di studi superiori e di ricerca
• Ufficio agrario
(con annesso museo entomologico
)
• Centro speri
-
mentale agrari
o
• Giardino di acclimatazion
e
• Stazione ampelografica
altre istituzioni
• Biblioteca   • Museo archeologico   • Casa littoria   • Casa della Gil
Sindacati fascist
i
Società Dante Alighieri   • Ente turistico alber-
ghiero della Libia   • Consociazione turistica italiana   • Compagnia ita-
liana del turismo   • Regio automobile club d’Italia   • Consiglio e uffi-
cio dell’economia corporativa   • Associazione musulmana del littorio
• Gioventù araba del littorio   • Scuola allievi zaptiè
associazioni
Istituto del nastro azzurro   • Associazione nazionale fra mutilati e inva-
lidi guerr
a   • Associazione nazionale combattenti   • Associazione nazio-
nale volontari di guerr
a
Unione nazionale ufficiali in congedo d’Itali
a
Federazione nazionale arditi d’Italia   • Associazione nazionale bersa-
glieri   • Associazione nazionale arma del genio   • Gruppo autieri in con-
gedo   • Reale unione navale aeronautica
(con annessa scuola civile di pi-
lotaggio)
• Circolo delle forze armate   • Circolo dell’industria e del com-
mercio   • Circolo dei cacciatori   • Tennis club del littorio   • Lega nava-
le italiana   • Unione uomini cattolici San Giuseppe   • Associazione fem-
minile Immacolata concezione   • Pio sodalizio delle figlie di Maria   • As-
sociazione maschile Juventus Nov
a
• Terz’ordine francescano   • Asso-
ciazione maschile Sant’Antonio da Padova   • Associazione femminile
Santa Teresa del Bambin Gesù   • Associazione maschile S. Cuore di Ge-
sù   • Associazione giovanile di azione cattolica del SS.mo Crocifisso
40
Bengasi
scuole per italiani
• Asilo d’infanzia Regina Elena   • Scuola elementare maschile G. Ame-
glio • Scuola elementare femminile Regina Elena • Scuola elementare
mista G. Cantore
(a Berca)
• Scuole medie Giosuè Carducci. Istituto tec-
nico inferiore, istituto tecnico superiore, ginnasio e liceo classico   • Scuo-
la secondaria di avviamento professionale industriale maschile, industriale
femminile e commerciale mista Arnaldo Mussolini   • Fratelli delle scuo-
le cristiane Istituto De La Salle
(scuola elementare maschile parificata)
• Suore francescane missionarie d’Ivrea
(asilo d’infanzia e scuola ele-
mentare femminile parificata)
scuole statali per ebrei:
Scuola per ebrei Regina Margherita
scuole statali per arabi
• Scuola per tracomatosi   • Scuola italo-araba Principe di Piemonte
• Scuola maschile italo-araba G. Torelli   • Scuola femminile italo-ara-
b
a
Scuola maschile italo-araba
(a Berca
)
Scuola italo-araba
(a
Rahaba
)
Scuola secondaria d’avviamento   • Corso di artigianato an-
nesso alla Scuola secondaria di avviamento professionale A. Mussolini
Scuola convitto per allieve infermiere
istituti di studi superiori e di ricerca
• Ufficio agrario
(con annesso museo entomologico
)
• Centro speri
-
mentale agrari
o
• Giardino di acclimatazion
e
• Stazione ampelografica
altre istituzioni
• Biblioteca   • Museo archeologico   • Casa littoria   • Casa della Gil
Sindacati fascist
i
Società Dante Alighieri   • Ente turistico alber-
ghiero della Libia   • Consociazione turistica italiana   • Compagnia ita-
liana del turismo   • Regio automobile club d’Italia   • Consiglio e uffi-
cio dell’economia corporativa   • Associazione musulmana del littorio
• Gioventù araba del littorio   • Scuola allievi zaptiè
associazioni
Istituto del nastro azzurro   • Associazione nazionale fra mutilati e inva-
lidi guerr
a   • Associazione nazionale combattenti   • Associazione nazio-
nale volontari di guerr
a
Unione nazionale ufficiali in congedo d’Itali
a
Federazione nazionale arditi d’Italia   • Associazione nazionale bersa-
glieri   • Associazione nazionale arma del genio   • Gruppo autieri in con-
gedo   • Reale unione navale aeronautica
(con annessa scuola civile di pi-
lotaggio)
• Circolo delle forze armate   • Circolo dell’industria e del com-
mercio   • Circolo dei cacciatori   • Tennis club del littorio   • Lega nava-
le italiana   • Unione uomini cattolici San Giuseppe   • Associazione fem-
minile Immacolata concezione   • Pio sodalizio delle figlie di Maria   • As-
sociazione maschile Juventus Nov
a
• Terz’ordine francescano   • Asso-
ciazione maschile Sant’Antonio da Padova   • Associazione femminile
Santa Teresa del Bambin Gesù   • Associazione maschile S. Cuore di Ge-
sù   • Associazione giovanile di azione cattolica del SS.mo Crocifisso
scuole per italiani
• Asilo d’infanzia Regina Elena   • Scuola elementare maschile G. Ame-
glio • Scuola elementare femminile Regina Elena • Scuola elementare
mista G. Cantore
(a Berca)
• Scuole medie Giosuè Carducci. Istituto tec-
nico inferiore, istituto tecnico superiore, ginnasio e liceo classico   • Scuo-
la secondaria di avviamento professionale industriale maschile, industriale
femminile e commerciale mista Arnaldo Mussolini   • Fratelli delle scuo-
le cristiane Istituto De La Salle
(scuola elementare maschile parificata)
• Suore francescane missionarie d’Ivrea
(asilo d’infanzia e scuola ele-
mentare femminile parificata)
scuole statali per ebrei:
Scuola per ebrei Regina Margherita
scuole statali per arabi
• Scuola per tracomatosi   • Scuola italo-araba Principe di Piemonte
• Scuola maschile italo-araba G. Torelli   • Scuola femminile italo-ara-
b
a
Scuola maschile italo-araba
(a Berca
)
Scuola italo-araba
(a
Rahaba
)
Scuola secondaria d’avviamento   • Corso di artigianato an-
nesso alla Scuola secondaria di avviamento professionale A. Mussolini
Scuola convitto per allieve infermiere
istituti di studi superiori e di ricerca
• Ufficio agrario
(con annesso museo entomologico
)
• Centro speri
-
mentale agrari
o
• Giardino di acclimatazion
e
• Stazione ampelografica
altre istituzioni
• Biblioteca   • Museo archeologico   • Casa littoria   • Casa della Gil
Sindacati fascist
i
Società Dante Alighieri   • Ente turistico alber-
ghiero della Libia   • Consociazione turistica italiana   • Compagnia ita-
liana del turismo   • Regio automobile club d’Italia   • Consiglio e uffi-
cio dell’economia corporativa   • Associazione musulmana del littorio
• Gioventù araba del littorio   • Scuola allievi zaptiè
associazioni
Istituto del nastro azzurro   • Associazione nazionale fra mutilati e inva-
lidi guerr
a   • Associazione nazionale combattenti   • Associazione nazio-
nale volontari di guerr
a
Unione nazionale ufficiali in congedo d’Itali
a
Federazione nazionale arditi d’Italia   • Associazione nazionale bersa-
glieri   • Associazione nazionale arma del genio   • Gruppo autieri in con-
gedo   • Reale unione navale aeronautica
(con annessa scuola civile di pi-
lotaggio)
• Circolo delle forze armate   • Circolo dell’industria e del com-
mercio   • Circolo dei cacciatori   • Tennis club del littorio   • Lega nava-
le italiana   • Unione uomini cattolici San Giuseppe   • Associazione fem-
minile Immacolata concezione   • Pio sodalizio delle figlie di Maria   • As-
sociazione maschile Juventus Nov
a
• Terz’ordine francescano   • Asso-
ciazione maschile Sant’Antonio da Padova   • Associazione femminile
Santa Teresa del Bambin Gesù   • Associazione maschile S. Cuore di Ge-
sù   • Associazione giovanile di azione cattolica del SS.mo Cr

** Casa del Fascio
**Opera Nazionale Dopolavoro

**Biblioteca pubblica
**Regio Automobile Club d’Italia
**Consociazione Turistica Italiana 
**Compagnia Italiana Turismo (CIT)
**Reale unione navale aeronautica (con annessa scuola civile di pilotaggio) 
**Circolo delle forze armate 
**Circolo dell industria e del commercio 
**Circolo dei cacciatori 
**Tennis club del littorio
** Lega navale italiana 
**Unione uomini cattolici San Giuseppe 
**Consiglio e ufficio dell economia corporativa 
**Associazione musulmana del littorio 
**Gioventù araba del littorio 
**School for Zaptiè 
**Associazione "Istituto del nastro Azzurro" 
**Associazione nazionale fra mutilati e invalidi guerra 
**Associazione nazionale combattenti 
**Associazione nazionale volontari di guerra Unione nazionale ufficiali in congedo d Italia 
**Federazione nazionale Arditi d Italia 
**Associazione nazionale bersaglieri 
**Associazione nazionale arma del genio
**Associazione Cattolica femminile Immacolata concezione Albergo Berenice
**Associazione Cattolica maschile S. Cuore di Gesù 
**Associazione giovanile di azione cattolica del SS.mo Crocifisso
**Newspaper «Giornale di Bengasi». 
**Quotidiano/settimanale «Littoriale» sezione Bengasi
**Agenzia giornalistica Cirenaica
**«Berid Barca» (weekly magazine in Arab language). 
**«Libia al Musauuara» (magazine in Arab & Italian language).
** Libreria editrice di Vittorio Fadlun 
** Libreria moderna Russo Francesco Utet 
** Libreria editrice di Vittorio Fadlun 
**Cinema teather "Municipale" 
**Teatro "Risorgimento" 
**Cinema "Sala Italia" 
**Cinema "Arena nazionale"                                                                            
**Supercinema (with theater)




Gallery


Notes


  1. Jump up  Occupation of Benghazi by the Italian troops (p. 79-95)
  2. Jump up  http://www.fedoa.unina.it/1881/1/Santoianni_Progettazione_Architettonica.pdf  Bengasi p.59-60
  3. Jump up  Istituto Agricolo Coloniale (Firenze).Ministero degli Esteri, 1946
  4. Jump up  ISTAT. "I censimenti nell’Italia unita I censimenti nell’Italia unita: ISTITUTO NAZIONALE DI STATISTICA SOCIETÀ ITALIANA DI DEMOGRAFIA STORICA Le fonti di stato della popolazione tra il XIX e il XXI secolo". Annali di Statistica. XII 2: 269
  5. Jump up  Australian harassments in 1941 Benghazi (in Italian)
  6. Jump up  Treaty Of Peace With Italy (1947), Evaluation and Conclusion
  7. Jump up  Italian exodus from Libya (in Italian)
  8. Jump up  Gaddafi expulsion of the Italians in 1970
  9. Jump up  Associazione Italiani Rimpatriati dalla Libia
  10. Jump up  Treccani: 1930 Benghazi (in Italian)
  11. Jump up  History of railways in colonial Libya (in Italian)
  12. Jump up  "Bengasi idroscalo" Postcard
  13. Jump up  Rosselli: The air links between Italy and Italian Africa
  14. Jump up  Linea dell'Impero (in Italian)
  15. Jump up  Italian car tags (in Italian)
  16. Jump up  Italians in new villages in Cyrenaica
  17. Jump up  Benghazi Stadium
  18. Jump up  "Italian Urban Plan of Benghazi"
  19. Jump up  Downtown Benghazi
  20. Jump up  Francesco Prestopino, Una città e il suo fotografo: la Bengasi coloniale, 1912-1941, (Milan: La vita felice, 1999), 123.
  21. Jump up  ANMI Archive Roma (Piacentini) 
  22. Jump up  Santoianni Vittorio, p.58
  23. Jump up  McLaren, Brian L. (2006). Architecture and Tourism in Italian Colonial Libya – An Ambivalent Modernism. University of Washington Press (Seattle, Washington). p. 158. ISBN 978-0-295-98542-8.
  24. Jump up  Ottavio Cabiati biography (in Italian)

Bibliography


  • Antonicelli, Franco. Trent'anni di storia italiana 1915-1945. Mondadori. Torino, 1961.
  • Bertarelli, Luigi Vittorio. Guida d'Italia: Possedimenti e colonie. Touring Club Italiano. Milano, 1929
  • Bollati, Ambrogio. Enciclopedia dei nostri combattimenti coloniali, Einaudi. Torino, 1936
  • Calace, Francesca. «Restituiamo la Storia» – dagli archivi ai territori. Architetture e modelli urbani nel Mediterraneo orientale. Gangemi, Roma, 2012
  • Capresi, Vittoria. I centri rurali libici. L´architettura dei centri rurali di fondazione costruiti in Libia – colonia italiana – durante il fascismo (1934-1940). Vienna University of Technology. Vienna, 2007
  • Chapin Metz, Hellen. Libya: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1987
  • Guida d'Italia del TCI. Possedimenti e colonie Edizioni Touring Club. Milano, 1929
  • Pagano, Giovanni. Architettura e città durante il fascismo. Editori Laterza. Roma, 1990
  • Santoianni, Vittorio. Il Razionalismo nelle colonie italiane 1928-1943.La «nuova architettura» delle Terre d’Oltremare. Ed. Universita' Federico II. Napoli, 2008 ([1])
  • Sean Anderson. "The Light and the Line: Florestano Di Fausto and the Politics of Mediterraneità". California Italian Studies. University of California, 2010.

External links



1 comment:

  1. Bengasi in Libya was similar in many ways to Massawa in Eritrea. It was a port-city that was more and more 'Italianised'....and 'Christianised'. But WW2 blocked all this process. It was going to be better or worse? A question very difficult to answer. Aros

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